The criminal appeal process in Canada exists to allow a trial decision to be reviewed by a higher-level court and ensure the decision was legally correct and prevent injustices. An appeal needs to be
based on interpretations of the law, or overriding errors in judgment, where the decision could not have been supported by the evidence presented at trial. Appeals will not be entertained
simply because the decision was not in someone’s favour. Following a trial, the losing party has a limited amount of time to initiate an appeal. The other party may also initiate a cross-appeal
to challenge part of the trial decision despite the earlier success.

Appeal courts are structured differently than trial courts. Appeal courts do not re-hear the evidence and the accused is usually not present. Appeal courts defer to trial court decisions
when it comes to assessing the credibility of evidence and testimony except in cases of an overriding error by the trial court. Instead, appeals involve a panel of judges (known as justices)
who hear arguments from the opposing lawyers. The lawyers focus on arguing the merits of the applicable laws and how those laws should be interpreted in the given situation. Although the
case is centered on a certain individual, the appeal is more about what the law should be in similar cases in the future.

Appeals can produce a few different results. First, the appeal court can uphold the trial decision. Second, it has the authority to replace the trial decision with its own. But if the appeal court determines that the original trial was faulty, it can also order that a new trial take place.

Appeal decisions must be thoroughly considered and prepared because they are binding upon lower courts within the jurisdiction. As an example, decisions from the Supreme Court of Canada are binding upon all courts in the country, but decisions of the Alberta Court of Appeal are binding only within Alberta. In Canada, there are three potential levels of appeal.

Appeal from Summary Conviction

The first level of appeal allows a summary conviction from the provincial lower court to be reviewed by the superior court in the province. The matter can be adjudicated by a court with
more authority before it reaches the provincial Court of Appeal. In Alberta, the superior court is called the Court of Queen’s Bench.

The Alberta Court of Appeal

For all other appeals, including indictable convictions, appeals are handled by the Court of Appeal. The Court of Appeal consists of three justices who review court decisions from across
the province. In most cases, the appeal will end here. However, in some situations, such as a reversal of an acquittal or a split decision (where one of the justices disagrees with the other
two) the case may be granted the right to be heard by the Supreme Court of Canada.

The Supreme Court of Canada

The Supreme Court of Canada consists of nine justices who represent the various regions of the country. The Supreme Court focusses on issues of the greatest importance and that require
national direction to alleviate legal discrepancies that have arisen between the provinces. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country and its decisions cannot be appealed.